References about prairie, tallgrass prairie, prairie arthropods and/or fire

References about prairie, tallgrass prairie, prairie arthropods and/or fire.

(prepared by Dr. Rob Roughley, Department of Entomology, University of Manitoba. March 2002.)

The following references have come from many sources. In particular, it was modified and supplemented from a list originally developed by Dr. Catherine C. Reed, Research Associate, Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul MN 55108. It deals principally with prairie, tallgrass prairie, prairie arthropods and/or fire.


Abrams, M.D. 1987. Effect of topographic position and fire on species composition in tallgrass prairie in Northeast Kansas. The American Midland Naturalist 117: 442-445.

Aiken, S.G. 1990. Grass dominated associations north of 60. Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands Newsletter 5: 11.

Aitchison-Benell, C.W. 1994. Responses to fire by taiga spiders. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 125: 29-41.

Andersen, A.A. 1997. Using ants as bioindicators: Multiscale issues in ant community ecology. Conservation Ecology [online] 1: (1-14).

Anderson, M.G., Fowlder, R.B., and Nelson, J.W. 1996. Northern grassland conservation and the prairie joint ventures. In Prairie Conservation. Edited by F.B. Samson and F.L. Knopf. Island Press, Washington, D.C., Covelo, CA. pp. 211-220.

Anderson, R. C. The use of fire as a management tool on the Curtis prairie. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 12. pp 23-35. 1972. Lubbock, Texas, Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida.

Anderson, R.C., Corbett, E.A., Corbett, G.A., Roberts, K.J., Kelley, T.M., and Anderson, M.R. 1994. Influence of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing on prairie forbs in Illinois.

Anderson, R.C. and Schwegman, J.E. 1991. Twenty years of vegetational change on a southern Illinois barren. Natural Areas Journal 11: 100-107.

Anderson, R.C. 1990. The historic role of fire in the North American grassland. In Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. Edited by S.L. Collins and L.L. Wallace. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman and London. xii + 175 pp. pp. 8-18.

Anderson, R.C., Leahy, T., and Dhillion, S.S. 1989. Numbers and biomass of selected insect groups on burned and unburned sand prairie. American Midland Naturalist. 122:151-162.

Andow, D. A., Baker, R. J., and Lane, C. J. Karner blue butterfly: a symbol of a vanishing landscape. 1994. St. Paul, Minnesota, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. University of Minnesota.

Andow, D. A., Baker, R. J., and Lane, C. P. Research need for management and recovery of Karner blue butterfly. Andow, D. A., Baker, R. J., and Lane, C. P. Karner blue butterfly: a symbol of a vanishing landscape. pp 209-216 . 1994. St. Paul, Minnesota, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Minnesota.

Angermeier, P.L. and Karr, J.R. 1994. Biological integrity versus biological diversity as policy directives. BioScience 44: 690-697.

Archer, S. and Smeins, F. E. Ecosystem-level processes. Heitschmidt, R. K. and Stuth, J. W. Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective. pp. 109-139 . 1991. Portland, OR, Timber Press.

Asrar, G., Harris, T.R., Lapitan/R.L., and Cooper, D.I. 1988. Radiative surface temperatures of the burned and unburned areas in a tallgrass prairie. Remote Sensing of Environment 24: 447-457.

Auclair, A.N. 1976. Ecological factors in the development of intensive-management ecosystems in the midwestern United States. Ecology 57: 431-444.

Baldi, A. 1990. Species richness, abundance and diversity of beetles (Coleoptera) in relation to ecological succession. Folia Entomologica Hungarica 51: 17-24.

Baldi, A. and Adam, L. 1991. Habitat selection of ground-dwelling beeltes during dolomitic succession. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 83: 245-251.

Ballard, H. E. Inventory of diurnal insects in the sand prairies of Newaygo, Michigan. 1992.

Ballard, H. E. and Greenlee, S. Monitoring responses of orthopteran populations to fire management in Missouri natural areas: baseline data and initial analyses. 1994.

Bertwell, R.L. and Blocker, H.D. 1975. Curculionidae from different grassland treatments near Manhattan, Kansas. Journal of the Kansas Entolmological Society 48: 319-326.

Bird, R.D. 1961. Ecology of the aspen parkland of western Canada. Canada Department of Agriculture. x + map + pp 1-155, Ottawa.

Bird, R.D. 1927. A preliminary ecological survey of the district surrounding the Entomological Station at Treesbank, Manitoba. Ecology 8: 207-220 + plate I.

Blankespoor, G.W. 1987. The effects of prescribed burning on a tall-grass prairie remnant in Eastern South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 19: 177-188.

Bliss, P. 1985. TNC Element Stewardship Abstract: Regal Fritillary.

Bock, C.E. and Bock, J.H. 1993. Cover of perennial grasses in southeastern Arizona in relation to livestock grazing. Conservation Biology 7: 371-377.

Bock, C.E. and Bock, J.H. 1991. Response of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to wildfire in a southeastern Arizona grassland. American Midland Naturalist 125: 162-167.

Bock, J.H. and Bock, C.E. 1989. Ecology and evolution in the Great Plains. In The evolutionary ecology of plants. Edited by J.H. Bock and Y.B. Linhart. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. pp. 551-577.

Boettcher, J. F. and Bragg, T. B. Tallgrass prairie remnants of Eastern Nebraska. Bragg, T. B. and Stubbendieck, J. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference. pp 1-7. 1989. Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska.

Bragg, T. B. Implications for long-term prairie management from seasonal burning of loess hill and tallgrass prairies. Nodvin, S. C. and Waldrop, T. A. Fire and the Environment: Ecological and Cultural Perspectives. pp 34-44 . 1991. Asheville, NC, USDA, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station.

Bragg, T.B. and Hulbert, L.C. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range Management 29: 19-29.

Brand, R.H. and Dunn, C.P. 1998. Diversity and abundance of springtails (Insecta: Collembola) in native and restored tallgrass prairie. The American Midland Naturalist 139:235-242.

Briggs, J. M., Fahnestock, J. T., Fischer, L. E., and Knapp, A. K. Aboveground biomass in tallgrass prairie: effect of time since fire. Wickett, R. G., Lewis, P. D., Woodliffe, A., and Pratt, P. Proceedings of the Thirteenth North American Prairie Conference. pp 165-170 . 1994. Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Department of Parks and Recreation.

Brotherson, J. D and Landers, R. Q. Recovery from severe grazing in an Iowa tall-grass prairie. Glenn-Lewin, D. C. and Landers, R. Q. Proceedings of the Fifth Midwest Prairie Conference. pp. 65. 1978. Ames, IA, Iowa State University.

Brown, J.W. and Opler, P.A. 1990. Patterns of butterfly species density in penisular Florida. Journal of Biogeography 17: 615-622.

Bulan, C.A. and Barrett, G.W. 1971. The effects of two acute stresses on the arthropod component of an experimental grassland ecosystem. Ecology 52: 597-605.

Burke, I.C., Lauenroth, W.K., Riggle, R., Branned, P., Madigan, B., and Beard, S. 1999. Spatial variability of soil properties in the shortgrass steppe: The relative importance of topography, grazing, microsite, and plant species in controlling spatial patterns. Ecosystems 2: 422-438.

Camill, P. and Clark, J.S. 2000. Long-term perspectives on lagged ecosystem responses to climate change: Permafrost in boreal peatlands and the grassland/woodland boundary. Ecosystems 3: 534-544.

Cancelado, R. and Yonke, T.R. 1970. Effect of prairie burning on insect populations. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 43: 274-281.

Cannings, R.A. 1990. The Hat Creek Project, British Columbia. Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands Newsletter 5: 1.

Cantrall, I.J. and Young, F.N. 1954. Contrasts in the Orthopteran Faunas of Grassland, Forest, and Transitional Areas in Southern Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science for 1953 63: 157-162.

Capinera, J.L. and Sechrist, T.S. 1982. Grasshopper (Acrididae)-host plant associations: response of grasshopper populations to cattle grazing intensity. Canadian Entomologist114: 1055-1062.

Cardinale, B.J., Nelson, K., and Palmer, M.A. 2000. Linking species diversity to the functioning of ecosystems: on the importance on environmental context. Oikos 91: 175-183.

Carpenter, J.R. 1936. Fluctuations in biotic communities, V. Aspection in a mixed-grass prairie in central Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 22: 420-435.

Carpenter, R.J. 1940. The grassland biome. Ecological Monographs 10: 617-684.

Clampitt, C. A. Effect of prescribed burns on insects of prairie remnants in southwestern Michigan. 1997. East Lansing MI, The Nature Conservancy, Michigan Chapter.

Clark, B.K. and Kaufman, D.W. 1990. Short-term responses of small mammals to experimental fire in tallgrass prairie. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 2450-2454.

Clark, B.K., Kaufman, D.W., Kaufman, G.A., and Finck, E.J. 1987. Use of tallgrass prairie by Perosmyscus leucopus. Journal of Mammalogy 68: 158-160.

Coddington, J. A., Griswold, C. E., Davila, D. S., Penaranda, E., and Larcher, S. F. Designing and testing sampling protocols to estimate biodiversity in tropical ecosystems. Dudley, E. C. The Unity of Evolutionary Biology: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Systematics. Vol 1. pp 44-59 . 1991. Portland OR, Dioscorides Press.

Collins, S. L. and Glenn, S. M. Disturbance and community structure in North American prairies. During, H. J., Werger, M. J. A., and Willems, J. H. Diversity and Pattern in Plant Communities. pp 131-143 . 1988. The Hague, The Netherlands, SPB Academic Publishing.

Collins, S.L. 2000. Disturbance frequency and community stabilty in native tallgrass prairie. The American Naturalist 155: 311-325.

Collins, S.L. 1990. Introduction: Fire as a natural disturbance in tallgrass prairie ecosystems. In Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. Edited by S.L. Collins and L.L. Wallace. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman and London. xii + 175 pp. pp. 3-7.

Collins, S.L. and Gibson, D.J. 1990. Effects of fire on community structure in tallgrass and mixed-grass prairie. In Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. Edited by S.L. Collins and L.L. Wallace. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman and London. xii + 175 pp. pp. 81-98.

Collins, S.L. and Glenn, S.M. 1997. Effects of organismal and distance scaling on analysis of species distribution and abundance. Ecological Applications 7: 543-551.

Collins, S.L., Glenn, S.M., and Gibson, D.J. 1995. Experimental analysis of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition: Decoupling cause and effect. Ecology 76: 486-492.

Collins, S.L., Knapp, A.K., Briggs, J.M., Blair, J.M., and Steinauer, E.M. 1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280: 745-747.

Collins, S.L., Knapp, A.K., Harnett, D.C., and Briggs, J.M. 1998. The dynamic tallgrass prairie synthesis and research opportunities. Pp. 301-315. In Grassland Dynamics. Long-term ecological research in tallgrass prairie. Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford. xvi + 364 pp.

Collins, Scott L. and Steinauer, Ernest M. Disturbance, diversity, and species interactions in tallgrass prairie. Knapp, Alan K., Briggs, John M., Hartnett, David C., and Collins, Scott L. Grassland dynamics: Long-term ecological research in tallgrass prairie. pp. 140-156. 1998. New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Collins, S.L. and Wallace, L.L. 1990. Literature cited. In Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. Edited by S.L. Collins and L.L. Wallace. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman and London. xii + 175pp. pp. 153-169.

Comer, P. J., MacKinnon, W. A., Rabe, M. L., Cuthrell, D. L., Penskar, M. R., and Alber, D. A. A survey of lakeplain prairie in Michigan. 1995.

Coughenour, M.B. 1991. Spatial components of plant-herbivore interactions in pastoral, ranching and native ungulate systems. Journal of Range Management 44: 530-542.

Crockett, J.S. and Engle, D.M. 1999. Combustion characteristics of bison (Bison bison) fecal pats ignited by grassland fires. The American Midland Naturalist 141: 12-18.

Currie, D.J. 2001. Projected effects of climate change on patterns of vertebrate and tree species richness in the conterminous United States. Ecosystems 4: 216-225.

Curry, J. P. Grassland invertebrates: ecology, influence on soil fertility and effects on plant growth. 1994. London, Chapman and Hall.

Cushman, J.H. and Murphy, D.D. 1993. Susceptibility of lycaenid butterflies to endangerment. Wings 17: 16-21.

Cuthrell, D. L. The butterflies of Kittson and Roseau counties, Minnesota, with special emphasis on the Dakota Skipper Hesperia dacotae (Skinner). 1991.

Cutler, B. Jumping spiders. Coffin, B. and Pfannmuller, L. Minnesota’s Endangered Flora and Fauna. pp 422-431. 1988. Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press.

D'Antonio, C.M. and Vitousek, P.M. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23: 63-87.

Dale, E. E. Jr. The effects of mowing and burning on a restored prairie at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Benton County, Arkansas. Brewer, R. Proceedings of the Eighth North American Prairie Conference. pp 134-138. 1983. Kalamzoo, MI, Dept. of Biology, Western Michigan University.

Dale, V.H., Lugo, A.E., MacMahon, J.A., and Pickett, S.T.A. 1998. Ecosystem management in the context of large, infrequent distrubances. Ecosystems 1: 546-557.

Dana, R. 1983. The Dakota skipper: a now rare prairie butterfly. Natural Areas Journal 3:31-34.

Dana, R. and Huber, R. L. Butterflies. Coffin, B. and Pfannmuller, L. Minnesota’s Endangered Flora and Fauna. pp 380-395. 1988. Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press.

Dana, R.P. 1991. Conservation management of the prairie skippers Hesperia dacotae and Hesperia ottoe: basic biology and threat of mortality during prescribed burning in spring. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 594-1991 (AD-SB-5511-S).

Danks, H.V. 1993. The biodiversity crisis, a national initiative: The Biological Survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods). Association of Systematics Collections 21: 17-22.

Danks, H.V. 1991. Life cycle pathways and the analysis of complex life cycles in insects. Canadian Entomologist 123: 23-40.

Danks, H.V. 1994. Regional diversity of insects in North America. American Entomologist40: 50-55.

Davis, M.A., Lemon, K.M., and Dybvig, A.M. 1987. The effect of burning and insect herbivory on seed production of 2 prairie forbs. Prairie Naturalist 19: 93-100.

Dempster, J. P. Fragmentation, isolation and mobility of insect populations. Collins, N. M. and Thomas, J. A. The Conservation of Insects and their Habitats. pp 143-154. 1991. London, Academic Press.

Disney, R. H. L. Assessments using invertebrates: posing the problem. M. B. Usher. Wildlife Conservation Evaluation. pp 271-293. 1986. London, Chapman and Hall.

Dondale, C.D., Nicholls, C.F., Redener, J.H., Semple, R.B., and Turnbull, A.L. 1971. An improved Berlese-Tullgren funnel and a flotation separator for extracting grassland arthropods. Canadian Entomologist 103: 1549-1552.

Dougan, J.W., Gartshore, R.G., and Kitchen, C.M. 1990. Mowing increases plant species diversity of wet meadow-prairie system (Ontario). Restoration and Management Notes 8:35-36.

Duncan, J.R. 1996. Conservation status ranks of the amphibians of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 96-01 1-4.

Duncan, J.R. 1996. Conservation status ranks of the birds of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 96-05 1-26.

Duncan, J.R. 1997. Conservation status ranks of the butterflies of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 97-03 1-12.

Duncan, J.R. 1997. Conservation status ranks of the fishes of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 97-02 1-10.

Duncan, J.R. 1997. Conservation status ranks of the mammals of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 97-01 1-12.

Duncan, J.R. 1996. Conservation status ranks of the reptiles of Manitoba. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 96-03 1-4.

Dunwiddie, P.H. 1991. Comparisons of abovground arthropods in burned, mowed and untreated sites in sandplain grasslands on Nantucket island. American Midland Naturalist125: 206-212.

Eberhardt, L.L. 1976. Quantitative ecology and impact assessment. Journal of Environmental Management 4: 27-70.

Ecological Monitoring Coordinating Office 1995. A framework for monitoring biodiversity change within the ecological monitoring and assessment network in Canada.

Ehrenreich, J.H. and Aikman, J.M. 1963. An ecological study of the effect of certain management practices on native prairie in Iowa. Ecological Monographs 33: 113-130.

Ehrlich, P.R. 1992. Population biology of checkerspot butterflies and the preservation of global biodiversity. Oikos 63: 6-1?

Ehrlich, P.R. and Murphy, D.D. 1987. Conservation lessons from long-term studies of checkerspot butterflies. Conservation Biology 1.

Ellsbury, M.M., Powell, J.E., Forcella, F., Woodson, D.W., Clay, S.A., and Riedell Walter E. 1998. Diversity and dominant species of ground beetles assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in crop rotation and chemical input systems for the northern great plains. Ecology and Population Biology 91: 619-625.

Englund, J. V. and Meyer, W. J. The impact of deer on 24 species of prairie forbs. Clambey, G. K. and Pemble, R. H. The Prairie: Past, Present and Future: Proceedings of the Ninth North American Prairie Conference. pp 210-212. 1986. Fargo, ND, Tri-College Center for Environmental Studies.

Entomological Society of Saskatchewan Insects and Arachnids collected in Grasslands National Park, SK 1987-1990. Entomoligical Society of Saskatchewan.

Epstien, H.E., Burke, I.C., and Lauenroth, W.K. 1999. Responses of the shortgrass steppe to changes in rainfall seasonality. Ecosystems 2: 139-150.

Evans, E.W. 1991. Experimental manipulation of herbivores in native tallgrass prairie: responses of aboveground arthropods. American Midland Naturalist 125: 37-46.

Evans, E.W., Rogers, R.A., and Opferman, D.J. 1983. Sampling grasshoppers (Orthoptera, Acrididae) on burned and unburned tallgrass prairie: Night trapping vs. sweeping. Environmental Entomology 12: 1449-1454.

Evans, E.W. 1992. Absence of interspecific competition among tallgrass prairie grasshoppers during a drought. Ecology 73: 1038-1044.

Evans, E.W. 1988. Community dynamics of prairie grasshoppers subjected to periodic fire: predictable trajetories or random walks in time? Oikos 52: 283-292.

Evans, E.W. 1984. Fire as a natural disturbance to grasshopper assemblages of tallgrass prairie. Oikos 43: 9-16.

Evans, E.W. 1988. Grasshopper (Insecta: Orthoptera: Acrididae) assemblages of tallgrass prairie: influences of fire frequency, topography, and vegetation. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 66: 1495-1501.

Evans, E.W. 1989. Interspecific interactions among phytophagous insects of tallgrass prairie:an experimnetal test. Ecology 70: 435-444.

Eyre, M.D. and Luff, M.L. 1990. A preliminary classification of European grassland habitats using carabid beetles. In The role of ground beetles in ecological and environmental studies. Edited by N.E. Stork. Intercept Ltd., Andover, Hampshire, UK. pp. 227-236.

Fay, P.A. and Samenus Jr, R.J. 1993. Gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) mortality in a spring tallgrass prairie fire. Environmental Entomology 22: 1333-1337.

Ferguson, S.H. 2001. Changes in trophic abundance of soil arthropods along a grass-shrub-forest gradient. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 457-464.

Ferguson, S.H. 2001. Predator size and distance to edge: is bigger better? Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 457-464.

Fielding, D.J. and Brusven, M.A. 1993. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community composition and ecological disturbance on southern Idaho rangeland. Environmental Entomology 22: 71-81.

Fielding, D.J. and Brusven, M.A. 1993. Spatial analysis of grasshopper density and ecological disturbance on southern Idaho rangeland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 43: 31-47.

Finck, E.J., Rothchild, S.L., Simpson, B., and Sexson, K. 1993. Restoration of tallgrass prairie: a missing component--pronghorn. Restoration and Managment Notes 11: abstract.

Finnamore, A.T. Arid grasslands - biodiversity, human society, and climate change. Canadian Biodiversity 2: 15-23.

Finnamore, A.T. 1994. SAGE: Sustainable Arid Grassland Ecosystem Project.

Fisher, B.L. 1998. Insect Behavior and Ecology in Conservation: Preserving Functional Species Interactions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91: 155-158.

Foster, D.R., Knight, D.H., and Franklin, J.F. 1998. Lanscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances. Ecosystems 1: 497-510.

Fox, L. III, Biery, E. H., and Stuart, J. D. A technique to measure the effects of wildfire on landscape diversity, Klamath mountains, California. Proceedings of the Symposium on Biodiversity of Northwestern California. pp 158-162. 1992. University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Fritz, K.M., Dodds, W.K., and Pontius, J. 1999. The effects of bison crossings on the macroinvertebrate community in a tallgrass prairie stream. The American Midland Naturalist 141: 253-265.

Fukami, T. 2001. Sequence effects of disturbance on community structure. Oikos 92: 215-224.

Fukami, T., Naeem, S., and Wardle, D.A. 2001. On similarity among local communities in biodiversity experiments. Oikos 95: 340-348.

Gallé, L. 1986. Habitat and niche analysis of grassland ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologica Generalis 11: 197-211.

Gartner, F. R., Lindsey, J. R., and White, E. M. Vegetation responses to spring burning in western South Dakota. Clambey, Gary K. and Pemble, Richard H. The Prairie: past present and future. pp. 143-146. 1986. Tri-College University Center for Environmental Studies. Fargo, ND., North Dakota State University.

Ghilarov, A.M. 2000. Ecosystem functioning and intrinsic value of biodiversity. Oikos 90:408-412.

Gibson, D. J. Hulbert’s study of factors effecting botanical composition of tallgrass prairie. Bragg, T. B. and Stubbendieck, J. Proceedings of the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference. pp. 114-133. 1989. Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska.

Glenn-Lewin, D. C., Johnson, L. A., Jurik, T. W., Akey, A., Loeschke, M., and Rosburg, T. Fire in central North American Grasslands: vegetative reproduction, seed germination and seddling establishment. Collins, S. L. and Wallace, L. L. Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies. pp 28-45. 1990. Norman, OK, University of Oklahoma Press.

Glenn, S.M. and Collins, S.L. 1992. Effects of scale and disturbance on rates of immigration and extinction of species in prairies. Oikos 63: 273-280.

Gonzalez, A., Lawton, J.H., Gilbert, F.S., Blackburn, T.M., and Evans-Freke, I. 1998. Metapopulation dynamics, abundance, and distribution in a microecosystem. Science 281:2045-2047.

Goodman, D. 1987. How do any species persist? Lessons for conservation biology. Conservation Biology 1: 59-62.

Greenall, J. 1996. Manitoba's terrestrail plant communities. Manitoba Conservation Data Centre MS Report 96-02 i-x,1-32.

Hadley, E.B. and Kieckhefer, B.J. 1963. Productivity of two prairie grasses in relation to fire frequency. Ecology 44: 389-395.

Hall, S. P. and Schweitzer, D. F. A survey of the mothes, butterflies and grasshoppers of four Nature Conservancy preserves in southeastern North Carolina. 1993.

Halvorsen, H.H. An evaluation of grassland management practices for wildlife in central Wisconsin. College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin.

Halvorsen, H. H. and Anderson, R. K. Evaluation of grassland management for wildlife in central Wisconsin. Kucera, C. L. Proceeding of the Seventh North American Prairie Conference. pp 267-279. 1980. Springfield, MO, Southwestern Missouri State University.

Hamilton, K.G.A. 1993. Bug fauna of northern tallgrass prairies. unpublished ms.

Hamilton, K.G.A. 1995. Evaluation of leafhoppers and their relatives (Insecta: Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha) as indicators of prairie preserve quality. Pp. 211-226, in R.G. Wickett, P.D. Lewis, A. Woodliffe and A. Pratt. Editors. Proceedings of the 14th Annual North American Prairie Conference. Preney Print & Lith Inc., Windsor.

Hamilton, K.G.A. 1990. Grasslands of Ontario and surrounding areas. Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands Newsletter 5: 2-10.

Hamilton, K.G.A. 1994. Leafhopper evidence for origins of northeastern relict prairies (Insecta: Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Pp. 61-70, in R.G. Wickett, P.D. Lewis, A. Woodliffe and A. Pratt. Editors. Spirit of the land, our prairie legacy (Windsor, Ont., 1992) . Proceedings of the 13th Annual North American Prairie Conference. Department of Parks and Recreation, Windsor, Ontario. viii + 262 pp.

Hammond, P.C. 1995. Conservation of biodiversity in native prairie communities in the United States. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 63: 1-6.

Hansen, J.H. 1986. Comparison of insects from burned and unburned areas after a range fire. Great Basin Naturalist 46: 721-727.

Hanson, H.C. 1934. A comparison of methods of botanical analysis of the native prairie in western North Dakota. Journal of Agricultural Research 49: 815-842.

Harris, L. D. The Fragmented Forest. 1984. Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.

Hartnett, D.C. 1991. Effects of fire on tallgrass prairie on growth and reproduction of prairie coneflower (Ratibida columnifera: Asteraceae). American Journal of Botany 78: 429-435.

Hartnett, D.C., Fischer, L.E., and Hickman, K.R. 1994. Effects of bison on floristic diversity in tallgrass prairie.

Hayes, W.P. 1927. Prairie insects. Ecology, 8: 238-250.

Heitlinger, M. E. Burning a protected tallgrass prairie to suppress sweetclover, Melilotus albaDesr. Wali, M. K. Prairie: A Multiple View. pp 123-132. 1975. Grand Forks ND, University of North Dakota Press.

Henderson, R.A. 1994. Homoptera from Lisken spider study. pers. comm.

Henderson, R. A., Lovell, D. L., and Howell, E. A. The flowering responses of 7 grasses to seasonal timing of prescribed burns in remnant Wisconsin prairie. Brewer, R. Proceedings of the Eighth North American Prairie Conference. pp 7-10. 1983. Kalamzoo, Michigan, Dept. of Biology, Western Michigan University.

Hendrix, S. D. Effects of population size on fertilization, seed production and seed predation in two prairie legumes. Wickett, R. G., Lewis, P. D., Woodliffe, A., and Pratt, P. Proceedings of the Thirteenth North American Prairie Conference. pp 115-121. 1992. Windsor, Ontario, Canada, Department of Parks and Recreation.

Herbel, C.H. and Anderson, K.L. 1959. Response of true prairie vegetation on major Flint Hills range sites to grazing treatment. Ecological Monographs 29: 171-186.

Higgins, K. F., Kruse, A. D., and Piehl, J. L. Effects of fire in the northern great plains. EC 761. South Dakota State University, Brookings, S D., US Fish and Wildlife Service and Cooperative Extension Service.

Hill, G.R. The influence of fire and predator-pollinator interactions upon a tall grass prairie plant community. University of Iowa.

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Mise à jour 14 jui 2014